Research has shown that silver is a potent tool for use against malaria. This page includes information published about malaria and silver from several years ago. Ongoing research with the latest silver technologies is underway that has researchers excited over improved outcomes. Details of these improvements will be shared when possible, but for now this information from 2010 is an excellent introduction to the role that silver can play in the global fight against malaria.

 

Silver & Malaria Video

 

 

Silver & Malaria Article

 

An article appeared in The Indian Practitioner in September 2010 (volume 63, number 9, pages 567-574) that details the results of three clinical studies performed with malaria patients and silver, including a 100% cure rate in an average of five days. The article was authored by Prof. B. M. Hegde, retired Vice Chancellor of Manipal University and by Gordon Pedersen.

Article detailing silver's effect on malaria patients

Peer-reviewed article on malaria & silver

 

To view the full article in PDF form, click here.

 

Here are several excerpts from the article:

ABSTRACT

Malaria afflicts half the world’s population, kills more than half the children in sub-Saharan African countries, is caused by a parasite, transferred by mosquitoes, and destroys family and economic futures. Fifty-six human subjects from four separate study groups were used to determine the most effective dose, average time to full recovery and percent of patients cured…

INTRODUCTION

Malaria is endemic to 106 nations threatening half the world’s population, and an estimated 500 million cases which reportedly led to more than 1,000,000 deaths in 2008. The World Health Organization currently uses insecticides, nets, artemisinin-based combination drug therapy. These control strategies are significant but tragically incomplete in the prevention and treatment of malaria.

Malaria is an infectious disease transferred by mosquitoes and caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium. It is most prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, where it is debilitating and can be fatal. More than half of the children in these high-risk areas die before the age of five. Ninety per cent of malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where it is a major cause of poverty and a hindrance to economic development.

Five species of the plasmodium parasite can infect humans. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae cause a mild illness that is not generally fatal. Plasmodium falciparum is the most serious form of malaria in humans and often results in death. P. falciparum is the most common cause on infection and is responsible for about 80% of all malaria cases, and is also responsible for about 90% of all the deaths from malaria. Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonisis that can infect humans and macaques.

MOSQUITOES TRANSFER THE MALARIA PARASITE

Fertilization and sexual recombination of the parasites occurs in the mosquito’s gut, thereby defining the mosquito as the definitive host of the disease. The female Anopheles mosquito transfers the malaria parasite through the blood. When a mosquito bites and infected person, a small amount of blood is taken, which contains malaria parasites. These develop inside the mosquito, and approximately one week later, when the mosquito takes its next meal, the parasites are injected with the mosquito’s saliva into the person being bitten. The parasites enter the blood stream and are transported to the liver where they incubate for two to eight weeks. They are then released into the blood where the parasites enter the red blood cells and multiply. This causes damage to the red blood cells resulting in symptoms of fatigue, fever, headache, coma and possibly death. Parasites may sequester in the liver for as much as three years resulting in recurring malaria months or even years later.

MALARIA: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of malaria include: fever shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), nausea, vomiting, anaemia caused by haemolysis, haemoglobinuria, coma, convulsions, and retinal damage. The classic onset of symptoms of malaria is cyclical occurrences of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours, occurring every two days in P. vivax and P. ovale infections, while every three days in P. malariae. P. faliciparum can have recurrent fever every 36-48 hours or a less pronounced but almost continuous fever. Children with malaria may exhibit abnormal posturing, a sign indicating intracranial pressure or severe brain damage. Malaria has been found to cause cognitive impairments, brain damage, retinal whitening, anaemia, convulsions, coma, splenomegaly, haemoglobinuria with renal failure, blackwater fever, severe headache, hepatomegaly, hypoglycaemia and death. Severe malaria can progress extremely rapidly and cause death within hours or days. In the most severe cases of the diseasefatality rates can exceed 20%, even with intensive care and treatment. Approximately one in five P. vivax infections includes relapse within the year illustrating another problem, that of recurrence of disease months or even years later.

Pregnant women and young children are especially attractive to mosquitoes, which results in the high rates of stillbirths, infant mortality and low birth weight babies and high rates of child mortality and neurologic dysfunction.

TREATMENT

Anti-malaria drugs are not totally effective in treating or preventing malaria, especially in more severe cases. There are drug treatments being used for prevention but many produce adverse reactions like vertigo, and flu-like symptoms resulting in symptoms that are similar to the disease. P. falciparum has become resistant to the prescription drug treatment and now requires a combination of drugs derived from artemisinin. Severe malaria is being treated with intravenous or intramuscular quinine or artesunate. While these combinations of prescription drugs have been moderately successful in the past, the parasite has developed resistance, resulting in decreasing effectiveness. Resistance has developed to several anti-malarial drugs, most notably chloroquine, generating a significant urgency and scientific search for replacements. Although many are under development, the challenge of producing a widely available vaccine that provides a high level of protection for a sustained period has yet to be met. A successful vaccine may be effective today but as the disease mutates and continuously develops resistance the effectiveness of today’s vaccine will not be effective in tomorrow’s malaria. Prescriptions drugs are becoming less successful and vaccines will become less effective over time resulting in a growing need for a solution that can function as prevention and treatment.

 








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